|Author(s):||B. Saraceno 1|
|Affiliation(s):||1WHO, Geneva, Switzerland|
1 – Mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders are prevalent in all regions of the world and are major contributors to morbidity and premature mortality.
|Summary (max 100 words):||
Mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders are prevalent in all regions of the world and are major contributors to morbidity and premature mortality. The stigma and violations of human rights directed towards people with these disorders compounds the problem. The resources that have been provided to tackle the huge burden of MNS disorders are insufficient, inequitably distributed, and inefficiently used, which leads to a treatment gap of more than 75% in many countries with low and lower middle incomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the need for action to reduce the burden, and to enhance the capacity of Member States to respond to this growing challenge. The objectives of the WHO’s programme are to reinforce the commitment of all stakeholders to increase the allocation of financial and human resources for care of MNS disorders and to achieve higher coverage with key interventions especially in the countries with low and lower middle incomes. The Programme attempts to deliver an integrated package of interventions, and takes into account existing and possible barriers for scaling up care. Priority conditions were identified on the basis that they represented a high burden (in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disability); caused large economic costs; or were associated with violations of human rights. These priority conditions are depression, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, suicide, epilepsy, dementia, disorders due to use of alcohol, disorders due to use of illicit drugs, and mental disorders in children. The obstacles that hinder the widespread implementation of these interventions must also be considered, together with the options that are available to deal with these. Success in implementation of the programme rests, first and foremost, on political commitment at the highest level. One way to begin to achieve this is to establish a core group of key stakeholders who have multidisciplinary expertise to guide the process. Assessment of needs and resources by use of a situation analysis can help to understand of the needs related to MNS disorders and the relevant health care, and thus to guide effective prioritization and phasing of interventions and strengthening of their implementation. Development of a policy and legislative infrastructure will be important to address MNS disorders and to promote and protect the human rights of people with these disorders. Decisions will need to be made as to how best to deliver the chosen interventions at health facility, community, and household levels to ensure high quality and equitable coverage.
|Conclusion (max 400 words):||
Successful scaling up is the joint responsibility of governments, health professionals, civil society, communities, and families, with support from the international community. An urgent commitment is needed from all partners to respond to this urgent public health need.
Adequate human resources will be needed to deliver the intervention package. Most countries with low and middle incomes do not assign adequate financial resources for care of MNS disorders. Resources for delivery of services for these disorders can be mobilized from various sources – e.g. by attempts to increase the proportion allocated to these conditions in national health budgets; by reallocation of funds from other activities; and from external funding, such as that provided through developmental aid, bilateral and multilateral agencies, and foundations.