Self-Efficacy of Nurses in the Performance of Counselling-Related Tasks: Eldoret, Kenya.

Author(s) Carolyne Chakua1.
Affiliation(s) 1Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
Country - ies of focus Kenya
Relevant to the conference tracks Health Workforce
Summary This study investigated the self-efficacy of nurses at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in the performance of counselling-related tasks. A self-efficacy questionnaire was used to assess the nurses’ self-efficacy in the performance of counselling tasks. The findings revealed that whereas age, experience and additional training in nursing had a significant influence on nurses’ self-efficacy in performing counselling tasks, gender and level of training had a non-significant influence. These findings pose significant implications for managers and trainers of healthcare professionals in ensuring an enabling environment for the practicing and training of professionals in counselling tasks.
Background Counselling as a fundamental element of nursing has been acknowledged repeatedly. Nursing is recognized as being the art and science of caring. The artistic part of nursing demands ability in the creative use of nursing actions. The scientific part involves an analytical, systematic process to solve clinical nursing problems. Irrespective of which approach nurses take, the need for counselling-related skills is inherent in nursing tasks. Despite numerous opportunities for nurses to utilize counselling skills, their ability to effectively provide these services using the knowledge and skills gained during their training is an issue of concern. For a long time now, concern has grown that nurses may often be ineffective counsellors, and that deficiencies exist in training for counselling-related skills in nursing. It is against this background that the study investigated the perceptions of nurses regarding their performance in counselling-related tasks. This was achieved through the measurement of nurses’ self-efficacy. Self-efficacy measures were identified through statements identifying counselling tasks, where the participants were required to indicate their level of confidence in performing these activities.
Objectives 1. To investigate the relationship between age and self-efficacy of nurses at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in performing counselling tasks.
2. To investigate the relationship between gender and self-efficacy of nurses at MTRH in performing counselling tasks.
3. To investigate the influence of level of training in nursing on the self-efficacy of nurses at MTRH in performing counselling tasks.
4. To investigate the effect of experience in nursing on the self-efficacy of nurses at MTRH in performing counselling tasks.
5. To investigate the influence of additional training in counselling skills on the self-efficacy of nurses at MTRH in performing counselling tasks.
Methodology The study employed a causal comparative research design, a type of descriptive research that describes conditions that already exist, with an attempt to determine reasons, or causes, for preexisting differences in groups of individuals. This study adopted simple random and stratified sampling as probability techniques to select participants involved in the collection of the data. At the very outset of this research process, stratified sampling was used to select practicing nurses based on the departments they worked in. From each stratum, simple random sampling technique was then employed to select participants from each department. This was achieved through computer generation of random numbers from the list of nurses in each department to come up with a total of 212 nurses. The Self-Efficacy Questionnaire was used as a close-ended questionnaire with 30 statements describing counselling-related tasks. The respondents were required to answer on a 5 point likert scale, where 1 = Not true; 2 = Hardly true; 3 = Not Sure; 4= Moderately true and 5 = Very true. T-test for independent samples was used to compare the difference in mean self-efficacy scores for the categorical variables in this study that had only 2 groups: gender (male and female) and additional training (yes and no). One-way ANOVA was used to compare mean difference in self-efficacy along the variables of age-group, level of training and length of experience in nursing, and variables that had more than two groups. All tests were considered significant at 95% confidence level.
Results 1. Relationship between age and self-efficacy in performing counselling-related tasks: The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in mean efficacy score by age of nurses, F(192 ) = 1.52, p = .03. From these results, it was then concluded that age does influence self-efficacy of nurses in the performance of counselling. The older the nurses, the more efficacious they are in performing counselling tasks.
2. Relationship between gender and self-efficacy in performing counselling-related tasks: The result of the analysis indicated that there was a non-significant difference, t(193) = -.50, p = .619. It was then concluded that gender had no significant influence on the self-effcacy of nurses at MTRH in performing counselling tasks.
3. Relationship between level of training in nursing and self-efficacy in performing counselling-related tasks: The results indicated that there was a statistically non-significant difference, F(190) = 2.0, p = .117. The interpretation thereof was that the level of training in nursing, whether certificate, diploma or undergraduate degree, did not exert any significant influence on nurses’ self-efficacy in performing counselling tasks.
4. Relationship between length of nursing experience and self-efficacy in performing counselling-related tasks: The results obtained indicated that there was a significant difference among the mean scores, F(191) = 3.12, p = .046. Therefore, nurses with longer experience had a higher self-efficacy in performing counselling tasks than those who had less work experience.
5. Do nurses who have received additional training in counselling skills and those who have not differ in self-efficacy in performing counselling-related tasks? Nurses with additional training in counselling skills were defined as those nurses who have undertaken additional training in counselling, outside of their regular nursing training programme. The result of the analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores, t(192) = 2.51, p = .013. Consequently, it was concluded that nurses with additional training in counselling were more self-efficacious in performing counselling tasks than those without additional training.
Conclusion Self-efficacy of nurses in performance of counselling tasks was investigated along various variables namely age, gender, level of training, experience in nursing and additional training in counselling skills. Of these variables, the study found out that gender and level of training do not significantly influence the self-efficacy of nurses in performing counselling tasks. On the other hand, this study revealed that additional training, age and experience in nursing positively influence self-efficacy of nurses in performing counselling tasks. Bandura (1977) asserts that self-efficacy is enhanced by interventions. In the case of nurses at MTRH, their self-efficacy in performing counselling was enhanced by additional training in counselling, advance in age and increase in experience. All these three factors are external interventions that positively impacted performance of nurses. In essence, the self-efficacy of nurses in performing counselling tasks had everything to do with external interventions as opposed to personal attributes. Furthermore, these interventions enabled exposure to specific activities in a deliberate manner. This could explain why the level of training in nursing, though an intervention, had a non-significant effect on self-efficacy as the nursing training in itself does not deliberately address preparation in task specific counselling activities. These findings provide insights for all stakeholders in the field of medical education on the relevant areas of emphasis in training healthcare workers. This in turn will translate to competent professionals and high levels of patient satisfaction.

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