Towards The Elimination Of New Pediatric HIV Infections.

Author(s) Olatunji Adetokunboh1.
Affiliation(s) 1Community Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
Country - ies of focus South Africa
Relevant to the conference tracks Infectious Diseases
Summary In 2009, UNAIDS called for the virtual elimination of Mother to Child Transmission. In 2011, the Global Plan started and it covers all low and middle-income countries, but focuses on the 22 countries with the highest estimated numbers of pregnant women living with HIV. The data used were obtained from 2012 progress reports submitted by countries to UNAIDS and Spectrum software 2012 country files were used in monitoring the progress of these countries. From this study, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia were the top progressing countries while India, Congo Democratic Republic, Nigeria, Angola, Chad and Mozambique were in the rear.
Background In 2009, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/VIGS (UNAIDS) called for the virtual elimination of Mother to Child Transmission, a call that has since been embraced by many agencies, regional coordinating bodies and national governments.
In 2011, at the United Nations General Assembly High Level Meeting on AIDS, global leaders made commitment with a plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and to keeping their mothers alive. This plan covers all low and middle-income countries, but focuses on the 22 countries with the highest estimated numbers of pregnant women living with HIV.
Objectives The objective of this study was to access the progress of the priority countries involved in Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections in children and keeping their mothers alive.
Methodology Research question:
What is the progress made by the priority countries towards the elimination of new HIV infections in children and keeping their mothers alive.Methods:
The data used were obtained from 2012 progress reports submitted by countries to UNAIDS and Spectrum software 2012 country files. The study looked at the overall target 1 which is geared towards reducing the number of new HIV infections among children by 90%. The study also looked at Prong 3: Targets 3.1 - reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV to 5% , Target 3.2 - having 90% of mothers receiving Perinatal antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis and Target 3.3 - having 90% of breastfeeding infant-mother pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis. The 2009 data serves as the baseline for this study.
Results For the overall target 1, the countries were categorized into 3 categories with 8 countries achieving rapid decline ( > 30%), 7 countries had moderate decline (20 -30%) while 5 countries had slow or no decline (10%) The percentage difference in reduction of mother-to-child transmission rate (%) (2009-2011), 9 countries (5 - 10%) and 5 countries (90%, 50-90% and < 50% in 3, 12 and 7 countries respectively.
By 2011, the percentages of mother-infant pairs receiving antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission during breastfeeding were >50%, 21-50% and ≤20% in 3, 6 and 11 countries respectively. From this study, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia were the top progressing countries while India, Congo Democratic Republic, Nigeria, Angola, Chad and Mozambique were in the rear. Notably, by 2009 Botswana had achieved some of the targets. Some of the countries did not provide adequate data for proper assessment.
Conclusion There was some level of progress among the priority countries in different areas geared towards reaching the elimination of new HIV infections in children, however some countries are still far behind. The performance in the area of mother - infant pairs receiving antiretroviral drugs is generally not encouraging. There is need for more drastic measures in the slowly progressing countries and keeping pace with the others. This research will be published in open access journals and presented to the research communities.

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