Geneva Health Forum Archive

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GHF2014 – PS35 – Social Media and Global Health: The “How to” and “What for”

14:00
15:30
PS35 THURSDAY, 17 APRIL 2014 ROOM: 3
ICON_Fishbowl
Social Media and Global Health: The "How to" and "What for"
SPEAKERS:
Dr. Greg Martin
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Globalization and Health, Ireland
Mr. Sebastian Majewski
Senior Communications Officer, Gates Foundation, United States
OUTLINE:
This session will comprise two presentations followed by questions and discussion about the use of social media in the global health space. Dr Greg Martin (Globalization and Health) will give a brief overview of lessons learned through his experience in using social media to create virtual “communities” across borders. This will be followed by a presentation by Sebastian Majewski (Gates Foundation) in which he will talk about exciting work that is being done using social media monitoring to tackle some of the more urgent public health and development problems globally.
PROFILES:

photo greg martinDr. Greg Martin

Dr. Greg Martin is a South African doctor with a masters in public health and an MBA degree. Dr Martin’s involvement in global health has spanned a wide rang of subject matter including maternal and child health, cancer prevention, access to medicine and the treatment and care of people living with HIV, amongst others. He recently stepped down from the role of Director of Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission at the Clinton Health Access Initiative in order to move to Ireland where he recently got married. He is currently with Editor-in-Chief of the journal Globalization and Health and runs a Global Health YouTube channel as well as working as a clinician in a local hospital in Dublin.

Sebastian_Majewski_20131209_0020Mr. Sebastian Majewski

Sebastian Majewski (@sebmaje) is Senior Communications Officer at the Gates Foundation. Guided by social media monitoring and data analysis, Majewski’s evidence-based marketing approach focuses on social media’s potential to influence, inform, and legitimize agenda-setting in the international community. With more than six years’ experience in digital communications for UNICEF, UNDP and UNDESA, Majewski has been at the core of shaping global advocacy strategies for the largest humanitarian organizations.

Sebastian lectures master students of France Business School on social media monitoring, and is a regular speaker at social media conferences such as Social Media Week, Benchmark, and Dreamforce.

Dr. Doris Schopper

SCHOPPER-DorisDr. Doris Schopper

Professor at the medical faculty of the University of Geneva and director of CERAH, Switzerland

She obtained a medical degree at the University of Geneva (1978), trained as a specialist in Internal Medicine (1986) and completed a Doctor in Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health (1992).

Between 1982 and 1990 Doris Schopper spent several years with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in the field. She was president of the Swiss branch of MSF (1991–1998) and twice president of the MSF International Council during this period. In 2001 Doris Schopper was asked to constitute an Ethics Review Board for MSF International.

Since then she has chaired the Board coordinating the ethical review of MSF research proposals and providing advice on ethical matters to the organisation.

Doris Schopper also worked as health policy adviser in the Global Programme on AIDS at WHO headquarters in Geneva (1992-95).

Further international work includes two years as senior health policy adviser at the Swiss Tropical Institute and developing several policies and strategies for WHO (e.g. guideline for policy makers on national policies for violence and injury prevention; strategy for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Europe; WHO-wide strategy on child and adolescent health).

Professor Schopper has also been responsible for the development of health policies and strategies at the national and regional level in Switzerland (e.g. Swiss National Cancer Control Programme 2005-2010; framework to prevent obesity at the national level; comprehensive health policy for the canton of Geneva). She is member of the board of Pro Victimis Foundation-Geneva since 2003, and president since 2010.

In November 2012, Doris Schopper was appointed member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

Functions:

  • Director
  • Member of the Scientific Committees of the CAS
  • Coordinator CAS Health in Humanitarian Emergencies
  • Co-responsible Course Health Interventions in Humanitarian Crises

Fields of Interest:

  • Public health in humanitarian contexts
  • Development and analysis of health policy
  • Research ethics in humanitarian contexts
  • Ethics of humanitarian medical intervention
  • HIV-Aids, Cancer

GHF 2014 – PS01

10:45
12:15
PS01 TUESDAY, 15 APRIL 2014 ROOM: MOTTA ICON_Fishbowl
Public Hospitals Can Innovate Too!
MODERATORS:
Prof. Louis Loutan
Former head of the division of International and Humanitarian Medicine at the Geneva University Hospitals
Prof. Didier Pittet
Head of the infection control unit and president of the commission on innovation at the Geneva university Hospitals
SPEAKERS:
Prof. Brigitte Pittet
Chief of Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland
Prof. François Mach
Chief of Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland
Prof. Patrick Petignat
Chief of Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland
Ms. Anne Bourgeois
Physiotherapist, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland
Prof. François Chappuis
Chief of Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland
Dr. François Gilardoni
World Innovation Day, Innovation 4 Health, co-founder Special Advisor at Fongit Seed Invest, Switzerland
OUTLINE:
Public institutions often convey the image of being slow in responding to needs, plagued by inertia and leaving innovation to the private sector. This session will illustrate through numerous examples of projects implemented locally or abroad that innovation can be integrated in the overall strategy development of a public institution, such as a university hospital. It brings added value to the institution, strengthens its reputation, motivates its employees and retains them, it creates public value and a sense of satisfaction. Innovation can be built in at all levels of the institution and become a driving force. Partnerships with institutions abroad also play a significant role in developing and sharing new expertise, values and social responsibility.
PROFILES:

Prof. Louis LoutanProf. Louis Loutan

Louis is the founder of the Geneva Health Forum and has been its President since 2006. In this capacity Louis is responsible for providing strategic guidance to the initiative and ensures that it continues to enjoy wide institutional support.

Louis is Head of the Division of International and Humanitarian Medicine in the Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care and a practicing clinician at the Geneva University Hospitals in Geneva, Switzerland. He also serves the University of Geneva as Associate Professor in International and Humanitarian Medicine.

Louis is a specialist in internal medicine and tropical medicine. Louis has extensive field experience in Africa, Asia, North America and Eastern Europe. Louis is the former president of the Swiss Society of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology; President of the International Society of Travel Medicine (2001-2003). He serves on the boards of public and academic organisations that are committed to advancing the cause of global access to health.

ProfPittet(2-Black)Prof. Didier Pittet

Didier Pittet, MD, MS, is the Hospital Epidemiologist and the Director of the Infection Control Programme at the University of Geneva Hospitals and Clinics (2500 beds), Geneva, Switzerland; Professor of Medicine and Hospital Epidemiology at the University of Geneva; and Attending Physician in Adult and Paediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals. He is also Visiting Professor, Division of Investigative Sciences and School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK. Professor Pittet serves on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Infection Control, the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medecine, The Lancet Infectious Diseases and Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. He is also an editorial consultant of the Lancet. Professor Pittet currently leads the First Global Patient Safety Challenge “Clean Care is Safer Care” of the WHO World Alliance for Patient Safety. He was awarded the CBE in 2007 by Her Majesty Queen Elisabeth II for services to the prevention of healthcare-associated infection in the UK. Current major research interests include the epidemiology and prevention of nosocomial infections, methods for improving compliance with hand hygiene practices, and methods for improving the quality of patient care and patient safety.

PS01_Brigitte_PittetProf. Brigitte Pittet

Prof. Brigitte Pittet est médecin-cheffe du service de Chirurgie plastique, reconstructive et esthétique des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève. Ses principaux domaines d’intérêt sont la reconstruction craniofaciale et la reconstruction mammaire ainsi que les techniques de microchirurgie. Prof. Pittet organise régulièrement des missions humanitaires chirurgicales dédiées au traitement des séquelles de noma. Elle a reçu plusieurs distinctions pour ses activités de recherche axées sur la cicatrisation des plaies.

PS01_Patrick PetignatProf. Patrick Petignat

Prof. Petignat and his research group have experience in running clinical trials and epidemiological studies in the field of cervical cancer and HPV. They are also involved in the development of screening policy and colposcopy practice for the Groupement Romand de la Société Suisse de Gynécologie Obstétrique (GRSSO). They have recently developed and published consensus
guideline for cervical cancer screening and management of cervical dysplasia for the Swiss French Part (available at www.GRSSGO.ch). Patrick Petignat is a co-founder of the Swiss Working Group for
Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and is member of the WHO Steering Committee on Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control (C4-GEP).

chappuis_photo_3Prof. François Chappuis

François Chappuis is physician specialized in internal and tropical medicine. He completed a master in clinical tropical medicine at Mahidol University, Bangkok and a PhD in medical sciences at the University of Antwerp. He currently heads the division of tropical and humanitarian medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals and has been medical adviser for neglected tropical diseases at Médecins sans Frontières since 1999. His clinical research activities focus on African and American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and snake bites.

PS01_Francois.Gilardoni.SmallPicMr. François Gilardoni

Francois Gilardoni is a venture capitalist, innovation expert and award-winning scientist educated in Switzerland and the USA with nearly two decades of international experience in the high-tech and financial industries.  Building on the success of the first Innovation Day (ID) held in Geneva in 2007, in 2012 he partnered with Professor Didier, ID founder and world renowned specialist in patient safety, to foster a global culture of innovation in Medical and Healthcare Science by promoting Innovation Days around the world.  In 2013, they launched the World Innovation Day (WID) and the World Innovation Academy (WIA) global initiatives. Francois holds a PhD (cum laude) in Computational Chemistry, as well as advanced degrees in Environmental Science and Computing.  He is the founder of Global Advisory Services (GlobAS), a boutique firm providing non-discretionary investment advisory services to clients seeking to expand their private equity portfolio in the high-tech industry and to ventures raising capital (debt or equity).

PS01_Anne_Bourgeois_HUG_squareMs. Anne Bourgeois

Anne Bourgeois graduated as a physiotherapist in Geneva. After some time in the private sector, she joined the Geneva University Hospitals in 2002, where she worked in various departments, in acute care and rehabilitation services. She has extensive experience in numerous humanitarian projects providing care and training local staff as trainers (South of Marocco 2002, Haiti 2010 with Handicap International (HI) and MSF, Yemen with ICRC 2012-2013). She currently is involved in a training in rehabilitation project in Haiti with HI.

PS01_Francois_Mach_006Prof. François Mach

Prof. François Mach has extensive experience in the field of Cardiology particularly, with respect to the development and progression of atherosclerosis diseases. After obtaining his MD at the University of Geneva, he studied Internal Medicine and Cardiology at Geneva University Hospital. Then, he moved for post-doctoral fellowship in the laboratory of Professor Peter Libby, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston (1995-1999). After his return in 2000, he became full Professor of Cardiology and Head of Cardiology at the Geneva University Hospital. From 2012, he is President of the Swiss Society of Cardiology. François Mach is author of more than 250 publications with high Impact Factor and during his career he has already obtained more than 5 million euros as research grants, all funded by the European Community.

Prof. Mach is the director of the Cardiology Laboratory at School of Medicine of the University of Geneva that offers a number of general facilities.

His research group developed animal models of atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, chronic myocardial ischemia and ischemic stroke. Several knockout mice on inflammatory genes are available in the Cardiovascular Center. In the last 10 years, the group of Prof Mach substantially contributed to better clarify the inflammatory mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis and its acute dramatic complications, such myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in both human cohort and animal studies. In addition, he contributed to the design and achievement of several clinical research, multi-center studies, as well as establishment of several cohorts of CVD patients

 

 

 

GHF2014 – PS14 – Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health Care in Humanitarian Interventions

16:00
17:30
PS14 TUESDAY, 15 APRIL 2014 ROOM: 18 ICON_Fishbowl
Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health Care in Humanitarian Interventions
MODERATOR:
Dr. Doris Schopper
Professor at the medical faculty of the University of Geneva and director of CERAH, Switzerland
SPEAKERS:
Dr. Anne Golaz
Lecturer and researcher at CERAH, Switzerland
Ms. Wilma Doedens
Technical Adviser on Reproductive Health in Emergencies, Humanitarian Response, UNFPA, Switzerland
Dr. Lisa Thomas
Medical Officer, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Switzerland
Ms. Nelly Staderini
Référente médicale- Santé de la reproduction, Reproductive Health Advisor, MSF, Switzerland
OUTLINE:
Problems related to sexual and reproductive health are the leading cause of death and ill health for women of childbearing age globally. In crises, this vulnerability increases, while access to services decreases. The urgent need for life-saving sexual and reproductive health services has often been neglected and not prioritized in humanitarian responses.  Speakers from UN agencies and INGOs will give a brief overview of some of their sexual and reproductive health programmes, discuss recent achievements, challenges in integrating sexual and reproductive healthcare in humanitarian interventions and ways to advocate for better access to these services during crises.
PROFILES:

SCHOPPER-DorisDr. Doris Schopper
Professor at the medical faculty of the University of Geneva and director of CERAH, Switzerland

She obtained a medical degree at the University of Geneva (1978), trained as a specialist in Internal Medicine (1986) and completed a Doctor in Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health (1992).

Between 1982 and 1990 Doris Schopper spent several years with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in the field. She was president of the Swiss branch of MSF (1991–1998) and twice president of the MSF International Council during this period. In 2001 Doris Schopper was asked to constitute an Ethics Review Board for MSF International.

Since then she has chaired the Board coordinating the ethical review of MSF research proposals and providing advice on ethical matters to the organisation.

Doris Schopper also worked as health policy adviser in the Global Programme on AIDS at WHO headquarters in Geneva (1992-95).

Further international work includes two years as senior health policy adviser at the Swiss Tropical Institute and developing several policies and strategies for WHO (e.g. guideline for policy makers on national policies for violence and injury prevention; strategy for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Europe; WHO-wide strategy on child and adolescent health).

Professor Schopper has also been responsible for the development of health policies and strategies at the national and regional level in Switzerland (e.g. Swiss National Cancer Control Programme 2005-2010; framework to prevent obesity at the national level; comprehensive health policy for the canton of Geneva). She is member of the board of Pro Victimis Foundation-Geneva since 2003, and president since 2010.

In November 2012, Doris Schopper was appointed member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

Functions:

  • Director
  • Member of the Scientific Committees of the CAS
  • Coordinator CAS Health in Humanitarian Emergencies
  • Co-responsible Course Health Interventions in Humanitarian Crises

Fields of Interest:

  • Public health in humanitarian contexts
  • Development and analysis of health policy
  • Research ethics in humanitarian contexts
  • Ethics of humanitarian medical intervention
  • HIV-Aids, Cancer

 

Golaz-AnneDr. Anne Golaz
Lecturer and researcher at CERAH, Switzerland

She obtained her Medical Doctor degree and Doctorate in Medicine at the University of Geneva, and a MPH at the University of Washington. She’s Board Certified in Public Health and General Preventive Medicine. She has over 20 years of field experience in humanitarian work and  graduate and post-graduate education in public health. She’s worked as a medical epidemiologist for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; as a senior advisor for UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia in Kathmandu and Geneva Office, and for WHO HQ and Regional Offices in Cairo and New Dehli.

Role at the CERAH

  • Member of the Scientific Committees of the CAS Health in Humanitarian Emergencies and CAS Disaster Management
  • Coordinator CAS Health in Humanitarian Emergencies
  • Coordinator of the Research Methodology course (MAS-DAS)
  • Co-leader of the course Health Interventions in Humanitarian Crises (MAS-DAS week)
  • Co-leader TS Advocacy for Humanitarian Projects in Health

Fields of interest

  • Public health and epidemiology
  • Reproductive health in humanitarian emergencies
  • Mental health in humanitarian emergencies
  • Genocide prevention
  • Community capacity building
  • Research and evidence generation in humanitarian contexts

 

Ms. Wilma Doedens

Wilma Doedens is the Technical Adviser on Reproductive Health in Emergencies of the Humanitarian Response Branch of UNFPA. She has worked with UNFPA since 2002. Prior to this she worked with WHO.

Wilma is a Medical Doctor with a public health and reproductive health background. She has extensive field experience in coordinating and implementing reproductive health services in both humanitarian and development settings, working within national health systems as well as with NGOs such as Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), International Rescue Committee (IRC) and the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC).

She coordinated the writing and publication of the Inter-Agency Field Manual for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Gender-Based Violence Guidelines, and she is responsible for ensuring technical review and quality improvement of the Inter-Agency Reproductive Health Kits designed to support the implementation of priority reproductive health interventions in disasters.

 

Dr. Lisa Thomas

Lisa Thomas, MD is a Medical Officer in the Department of Reproductive Health and Research at the World Health Organization in Geneva, where she serves as the focal point for sexual and reproductive health in humanitarian settings.  She is a U.S. Board Certified Obstetrician Gynecologist with subspecialty training in family planning. Prior to joining WHO, she worked for humanitarian, development and donor agencies in over twenty developing countries including conflict and post-conflict settings. She has covered an expansive breadth of public and private sector projects in maternal and reproductive health policy, program design, training, research and monitoring and evaluation.

 

Ms. Nelly Staderini

Since more than 3 years, Nelly Staderini is in charge of the  Sexual and Reproductive Health and sexual violence in the medical department of Doctors Without Borders in Geneva. After initial training in midwifery and a Public Health Diploma in France, she practiced  in Parisian hospitals and had various functions in humanitarian missions abroad ( Mali , Cambodia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Guinea , Chad and Burundi ) for non -governmental organizations. She has worked on maternal health issues in general and sexual violence, prevention and treatment of obstetric fistula and the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in particular. She is the author of academic works dealing with training of TBAs in Cambodia and midwives in Chad as well as two books: Sage-femme en Afghanistan (Cheminements Editions , 2003) and l' art revisité des matrones, naissances contemporaines en question ( Faustroll Edition, 2011).

GHF2014 – LS02 – Evidence Informed Decision Making in Achieving UHC: the Role of Macro HTA

12:15
13:45
LS02 TUESDAY, 15 APRIL 2014 ROOM: 3
LUNCH
SESSION
Evidence Informed Decision Making in Achieving UHC:
the Role of Macro HTA

SPEAKERS:
Dr. Nick Drager
Honorary Professor, Senior Fellow, Global Health Programme, The Graduate Institute, Geneva
Mr. Adrian Griffin
Vice President, HTA Policy, Johnson & Johnson
Dr. Franz Pichler
Director, Global Public Policy, Eli Lilly and Company
Dr. John-Arne Røttingen
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services
Dr. Eva Maria Ruiz de Castilla
Executive Director, Esperantra (NPO, Peru)
OUTLINE:

As a number of countries aspire to implement universal health coverage frameworks, many are looking at methods to best structure their health system to ensure citizens obtain the health services they need. Given cost constrained environments, many low and middle income countries have increasingly focused efforts on prioritization and determining value for investments in health. As such, a significant focus has turned towards the use of research evidence as a tool to support decision making. However, historically, this type of evidence has rarely been applied to support overall health system decision making. In the context of developed countries, a narrow interpretation has placed a significant emphasis on decisions related to coverage and reimbursement of healthcare technologies, such as medicines and diagnostics. 1 Healthcare technologies are only one of several inputs in the overall health system. The organization and delivery of a health care system is a complex matter, which requires a number of decisions regarding the resources necessary to ensure access to services, the mix of interventions required and the means to achieve optimal results.2 Limiting evidence based decision making to coverage decisions tends to obscure the potential role to apply to the overall health system as a whole, such as interventions that facilitate access, service delivery, and aim to improve quality of care.

Therefore, as countries embark towards universal health coverage, it is important that decisions related to coverage of health products and benefits packages are only one part of the discussion. Many low and middle income countries have extensive inefficiencies in their health systems, including issues related to service delivery, quality of care and treatment standards that transcend the need to focus specifically on coverage of health technologies to determine value for investments in health.

This session will explore the role of evidence informed decision making in achieving universal health coverage, looking specifically at the role of "macro" HTA as it is applied to overall health system efficiency and quality of care. This unique session will provide the audience with a view of different perspectives from various sectors in the healthcare space - patient, industry, academic and payer/NGO. Through live interaction, the audience will be able to participate and provide thought provoking questions/answers amongst the group to explore this innovative topic.

PROFILES:

Nick Drager M.D., Ph.D
Honorary Professor, Senior Fellow, Global Health Programme, The Graduate Institute, Geneva

Former Director of the Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights and Senior Adviser in the Strategy Unit, Office of the Director-General at the World Health Organization- now is Honorary Professor, Global Health Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine; Professor of Practice, Public Policy and Global Health Diplomacy, McGill University; Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa; Adjunct Research Professor, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Ottawa; and Senior Fellow, Global Health Programme, The Graduate Institute, Geneva.

  • Work focuses on current and emerging issues related to global health, in the areas of global health security/diplomacy/governance, foreign policy and international trade and health including intellectual property and health.
  • Extensive experience working with senior officials in over 100 countries and major multilateral and bilateral development agencies in health policy development, health sector analysis, strategic planning and resource mobilization and allocation decisions and in providing strategic advice on health development negotiations and in conflict resolution.
  • Deep experience in global health diplomacy and high-level negotiations on international health security and development issues.
  • Represented WHO, serves as chair, keynote speaker at major international events and conferences; lectures and teaches at Universities in Europe, North America and Asia.
  • Editor/author of books, papers and editorials in the area of global health; global health diplomacy; trade and health including IP; foreign policy and health. Has an M.D. from McGill University and a Ph.D. in Economics from Hautes Etudes Internationales, (the Graduate Institute) University of Geneva.

 

AdrianGriffinAdrian Griffin
Vice President, HTA Policy, Johnson & Johnson

Adrian Griffin is Vice President, HTA & Market Access Policy at Johnson & Johnson.  He has been involved in the fields of health economics, outcomes research, and reimbursement policy within the healthcare industry for 16 years, with experience across the pharmaceutical, medical device, and diagnostic sectors.

Mr Griffin graduated in Medicinal Chemistry from University College London, obtained a post-graduate teaching qualification from Oxford University, and spent several years teaching chemistry before joining the UK’s Medical Research Council.  He then received his MSc in Health Economics at City University, London, before joining the healthcare industry.  Mr Griffin has held positions at GlaxoSmithKline, Pharmacia, and most recently Johnson & Johnson, where he has been since 2003.

In addition to undertaking outcomes research from the industry perspective, Mr Griffin has also served as a ‘decision-maker’, on the NICE Technology Appraisal Committee, where he has been a committee member for 10 years.  Mr Griffin is also active in numerous multi-stakeholder forums where key issues of HTA and access policy are debated and shaped, such as the HTAi Policy Forum, and initiatives that have brought regulators and HTA agencies together with companies, thus improving transparency and appreciation of different stakeholder perspectives.

Mr Griffin has contributed to several UK industry-government task-force and working groups, aimed at developing policy and processes to improve equitable access and uptake for patients to new innovations.

Within Europe, Mr Griffin has engaged through Company and Industry Association activities with EUnetHTA, with the aim of ensuring that what comes out of HTA collaboration across Europe is fit for purpose, with the ultimate aim of improving healthcare for patients.

Mr Griffin is currently on the Board of Directors of ISPOR, (the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research), and continues in his position as a member of the NICE Technology Appraisals Committee

 

Franz_Pichler2Franz Pichler, PhD
Director, Global Public Policy, Eli Lilly and Company

Franz Pichler has been Director, Global Public Policy at Eli Lilly and Company since 2012. This role encompasses development of external policy positions; provision of strategic advice; and external engagement around policy-related issues. A key focus of the role relates to the European environment, in particular with regards to Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and market access. He represents Lilly on the EuropaBio HTA and Market Access Group and the EFPIA HTA Task Force Steering Committee. He participates in the EUnetHTA Stakeholder Advisory Groups related to relative effectiveness assessment and methodological guidelines development. He is co-chair of the Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients initiative and is a participant of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) project ‘Incorporating real-life clinical data into drug development’ (GetREAL). He was a founding member of the HTAi interest sub group on HTA-Regulatory Interactions which he currently chairs. Franz joined Lilly after serving as the manager of the HTA Programme at the Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science (CIRS) – a non-profit, independent medicines policy and research think tank. Prior to joining CIRS, Franz worked for over 10 years in molecular biology with specialties in functional genomics, population genetics and bioinformatics. He obtained his BSC in biology and PhD in population genetics at the University of Auckland in 1997 and 2002 respectively.

 

John_Arne_Rottingen_squareDr. John-Arne Røttingen
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services

John-Arne Røttingen is Director of the Division of Infectious Disease Control at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health; Professor of Health Policy at the Department of Health Management and Health Economics, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo; Visiting Professor at the Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health; and Institute Visiting Scholar at the Harvard Global Health Institute.

He is Associate Fellow at the Centre on Global Health Security, Chatham House; research associate of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies; Chair of the Board of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research; member of the Scientific Oversight Group of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle; and member of the International Advisory Committee for the Global Burden of Disease study.

He has been Director General of the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services; Oxford Scholar at Wadham College; and Fulbright Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School.

He received his MD and PhD from the University of Oslo, an MSc from Oxford University and an MPA from Harvard University.

 

EvaMaria_Ruiz_de_CastillaEva Maria Ruiz de Castilla, PhD
Executive Director, Esperantra (NPO, Peru)

Dr. Eva Maria Ruiz de Castilla is a co-founder and since 2006 Executive Director of ESPERANTRA, a not-for-profit cancer and chronic disease patient advocacy organization in Lima, Peru. Her work at Esperantra is to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic conditions, health promotion, and to advance the recognition of the rights of patients to achieve access to timely diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. She has been instrumental in a number of national initiatives focused on cancer, including the government’s Plan Esperanza launched in 2012 to provide basic cancer care coverage for the poorest and most vulnerable Peruvians.

In addition to her work with Esperantra, Dr Ruiz de Castilla consults part-time for various Peruvian ministries, including Health, Social Development, Housing, Women, and Water-Sanitation to help design and coordinate the country’s public-sector social assistance programs. From 2011 to 2012, Dr Ruiz de Castilla was Director General of the Peruvian Ministry of Health’s (MINSA) International Coordination office and before that served as MINSA’s Director General of Health Prevention and Promotion. She has in-depth experience working with donor country agencies and multilateral organizations such as the World Bank.

As a Board Member of the International Alliance of Patients’ Organizations (IAPO) since 2010, Dr Ruiz de Castilla has been a global leader in patient-based organizational capacity building and has led various workshops on patient empowerment and networking. Her experience and involvement with building the capacity of civil society organizations focused on cancer in Peru earned her the American Cancer Society’s “Excelencia Latina 2009” Award. In 2011, Dr Ruiz de Castilla was named a Global Cancer Ambassador by the American Cancer Society, and was invited by the World Health Organization to participate as a civil society representative during the UN High-Level Meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Dr Ruiz de Castilla’s academic credentials include degrees in Industrial Engineering and a PhD in Economic Development at the EHESS in Paris, France, and in Political Science at the Sorbonne University Paris 1. In Europe, she consulted for the United Nations on food and agriculture issues for the southern common market (MERCOSUR). Dr Ruiz de Castilla has authored a number of publications and papers on social development, health, and citizen engagement, and has been invited to speak at more than 200 national and international congresses.

GHF2014 – PS30 – Debate Motion: “This house believes reverse innovation in health is a distinct category of innovation that holds the key to creating effective future health solutions.”

10:45
12:15
PS30 WEDNESDAY, 16 APRIL 2014 ROOM: 3
ICON_Debate
Debate Motion: “This house believes reverse innovation in health is a distinct category of innovation that holds the key to creating effective future health solutions.”
MODERATOR:
Dr. Greg Martin
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Globalization and Health, Ireland
FOR THE MOTION:
Dr. Shams B. Syed
Program Manager, African Partnerships for Patient Safety (APPS), Global Partnerships Lead, WHO Service Delivery & Safety (SDS), Switzerland
Ms. Vivasvat Dadwal
Senior Fellow at the University of Ottawa, Centre on Governance, Canada
AGAINST THE MOTION:
Mrs. Bronwyn Lay
Writer, Jurist, Australia
Dr. Sunoor Verma
Executive Director, Geneva Health Forum, Switzerland
PROFILES:

photo greg martinDr. Greg Martin
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Globalization and Health, Ireland

Dr. Greg Martin is a South African doctor with a masters in public health and an MBA degree. Dr Martin’s involvement in global health has spanned a wide rang of subject matter including maternal and child health, cancer prevention, access to medicine and the treatment and care of people living with HIV, amongst others. He recently stepped down from the role of Director of Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission at the Clinton Health Access Initiative in order to move to Ireland where he recently got married. He is currently with Editor-in-Chief of the journal Globalization and Health and runs a Global Health YouTube channel as well as working as a clinician in a local hospital in Dublin.

 

ShamsSyedIMG_2475Dr. Shams B. Syed, Program Manager, African Partnerships for Patient Safety (APPS), Global Partnerships Lead, WHO Service Delivery & Safety (SDS), Switzerland

Dr. Shams Syed is responsible for overseeing African Partnerships for Patient Safety (APPS), based at WHO Headquarters in Geneva. He has led the development and implementation of the programme since its inception in 2008. He assumed responsibility for global partnership development in the newly formed WHO Department of Service Delivery & Safety in 2013. Dr. Syed received his medical degree from St. George’s, University of London, and subsequently practiced as an independent General Practitioner in the UK. He received postgraduate public health training at the University of Cambridge. Subsequently, he trained in Preventive Medicine at Johns Hopkins University, is US Board Certified in Public Health & Preventive Medicine and a Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. His previous experiences include: involvement in a future-focused multi-country health systems research consortium; working at the Pan American Health Organization with seven Caribbean countries on strengthening health systems with a focus on surveillance systems; and working as the Advisor on Family and Community Health at the WHO Country Office in Trinidad and Tobago with a focus on quality of care. Dr. Syed has a focused academic interest in reverse innovation in global health systems.

 

PS03_Vivasvat_DadwalMs. Vivasvat Dadwal

Viva is a civil servant by day, community-builder by night. Viva's multidisciplinary interests span local, national, and international spheres. She is engaged in a range of socially and politically minded activities - from Canadian history to global health. She is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre on Governance at the University of Ottawa and Associate Editor of the London School of Economics-affiliated journal Globalization and Health. She has held prestigious internships at the World Health Organization and Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations and to the World Trade Organization in Geneva. She is also a guest blogger for World Bank's youth blog, Youthink! Viva holds a B.Sc. (Hons) in Biology from the University of Windsor, and an M.A. in Public and International Affairs from the University of Ottawa.

 

Sunoor -130Dr. Sunoor Verma
Executive Director, Geneva Health Forum, Switzerland

Dr. Sunoor Verma is the Executive Director Geneva Health Forum.As a senior development expert, Sunoor Verma has worked in emergency, conflict and post-conflict situations. He has led the establishment of complex partnerships and coalitions by negotiating strategic agreements and their implementation plans. He has set up programs across sectors, including, Education, Health, Protection, Injuries, Sanitation, HIV/AIDS, Harm Reduction, Conflict Resolution, Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, Environment, Culture, Gender, Minority issues etc. He has worked in various locations, including Western Europe, South East Europe, South Asia, South East Asia, North Africa and Australia. Among others, he consulted and worked with UNHCR, UNICEF, and the European Centre for Minority Issues, Cambridge University and the Australian Society of Plastic Surgeons. Sunoor Vema has been the principal consultant of the strategy consulting practice ‘ProCube’ and is the founder of www.csrforchildren.org.

He is a seasoned speaker on the topics of strategy, partnerships and leadership. He is also sought after for his skills as an effective moderator on high-voltage panels. In a previous avatar, Sunoor Verma was a practicing cardiothoracic surgeon.

 

PS30_Lay Profile PhotoMrs. Bronwyn Lay

Bronwyn Lay currently lives with her family in rural France near the Swiss border.

Before moving overseas, Bronwyn worked as a legal aid lawyer in Melbourne, obtained post-graduate qualifications in political theory and was involved with various community organisations.

She now spends her time writing and pondering the world from the safety of her vegetable patch.

 

GHF2014 – PS19 – Improving Access to Essential Medicines

10:45
12:15
PS19 WEDNESDAY, 16 APRIL 2014 ROOM: MOTTA
ICON_Fishbowl
Improving Access to Essential Medicines
MODERATOR:
Dr. Gilles Forte
Department for Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization, Switzerland
SPEAKERS:
Strengthening Health Systems to Achieve Access to Essential Medicines
Ms. Alessandra Ferrario
Research Officer, Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom
Dr. Nicholas Banatvala
Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health Dept., World Health Organization, Switzerland
Dr. Nils Billo
International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, Switzerland
Ms. Maria Kathia Cárdenas
CRONICAS Centre, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
Dr. Julie Sarah Torode
Deputy CEO and Advocacy & Programmes Director, Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Switzerland
Mr. Mario Ottiglio
Director, Public Affaires and Global Health Policy, International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations IFPMA, Switzerland
Ms. Margaret Ewen
Coordinator, Global Health Projects (Pricing), Health Action International (HAI), The Netherlands
OUTLINE:
This session at the Geneva Health Forum 2014 will aim to discuss the experience from different countries looking at barriers and facilitators to achieving the 80% target in different contexts and use this experience to see if lessons can be learnt on a global level and inform the implementation of concrete actions by different actors to reach this target. Following the presentation of country experiences different global actors will respond to the challenges presented as detail how they could see the problems being solved at what roles different stakeholders can play.
PROFILES:

PS19_Gilles_ForteDr. Gilles Forte

Dr. Gilles Forte is the Coordinator of the “Essential Medicines and Health Products Policy, Access and Use team” at WHO headquarters. He is also Secretariat of expert committees on selection and use of medicines and on drug dependence.

Dr. Forte leads the development of guidance and tools for improving and monitoring WHO Member States policy, governance, access and use of medicines and health products, including for NCDs. Prior to this, he coordinated WHO medicines policy work in the WHO African Region.

Dr. Forte oversaw WHO collaboration with Countries of Central and Eastern Europe while based in the EURO Office in Copenhagen. He was also Medicines Policy and Supply officer for the WHO emergency operations in the former Yugoslavia. He is one of the authors of the WHO Guidelines for Drug Donations and has developed a series of emergency medical kits including for NCDs. Dr Forte has extensive experience of the NGO sector, having worked with a number of aid agencies involved in development and humanitarian programmes in Africa and Eastern Europe.

Trained in hospital pharmacy and public health, Dr. Forte holds a doctorate in pharmacy and a Master’s degree in pharmacology and nutrition. He has also held senior posts in the French public health system and at the national centre for scientific research.

Alessandra_Ferrario3Ms. Alessandra Ferrario

Alessandra Ferrario is a Research Officer in health policy at London School of Economics. Her research focuses on access to medicines and non-communicable diseases. One of her current research projects looks at improving budget impact and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical products through the introduction of managed entry agreements (MEAs). Over the past two years she has been working with the World Health Organization on issues around availability, affordability and quality of medicines in the Republic of Moldova.

Alessandra is also studying the burden and management of diabetes, both from a health and economic perspective, as part of a multi-country study in low- and middle-income countries. In previous projects she has investigated the determinants of price and utilisation differences for prescription medicines across OECD countries and issues related to good governance for medicines in low and middle income countries. She holds an MSc in Health Policy, Planning and Financing (LSE/LSHTM), MSc in Epidemiology (Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel) and BSc in Molecular Biology (University of Basel).

Nick Banatvala_squareDr. Nicholas Banatvala

Dr Nick Banatvala is currently Senior Adviser to the Assistant Director General (Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health) at WHO in Geneva. Current responsibilities include leading development of a global coordination mechanism for the prevention and control of  NCDs, spearheading a newly set up UN NCD Taskforce and leading WHO’s global training programme to build capacity on NCDs for senior policy makers in middle and low-income countries.

Prior to this, Nick was Head of Global Affairs at the Department of Health in England where he led the development and implementation of the UK Government's first-ever global health strategy, its strategy for working with WHO and DH’s bilateral engagement with emerging economies. Before that, he headed up DFID’s work on global health initiatives and scaling up health services. This included leading on the health inputs for the 2005 G8 Gleneagles communiqué. He has represented the UK on a number of international initiatives, including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria and GAVI. Prior to this, Nick worked for DFID on health programmes in Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Middle East. Nick has experience of the NGO sector, having worked with the UK aid agency Merlin on development and humanitarian programmes.

Nick trained in paediatrics and infectious diseases and then did public health and epidemiologic research in the UK and at CDC, Atlanta. Nick has also held senior posts in UK public health. Nick has sat on government, non-government and academic boards, as well as national and international committees. He has undertaken consultancies for a number of agencies including the World Bank.

PS19_Nils_BilloDr. Nils Billo

Dr. Nils E. Billo, MD, MPH was Executive Director of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) from 1992 to June 2013.

Under the leadership of Dr. Billo, The Union has grown into a leading international health organisation, with more than 10,000 members and subscribers in 152 countries, and some 300 staff and consultants working from Paris and regional and country offices in 13 countries. The Union's mandate has expanded to include not only tuberculosis and lung disease, but also some of today's most vital interrelated public health issues, such as child lung health, HIV/AIDS, the pandemic of diseases caused by tobacco use and non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Dr. Billo completed his medical training at the University of Basel, Switzerland and holds a Master's of Public Health from the University of California, Berkeley. He was a member of the Stop TB Coordinating Board and past president of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies (FIRS), which organised the 2010 Year of the Lung campaign. Before joining The Union, he was head of the Epidemiology Section of the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland.

Dr. Billo is currently working as Senior Consultant for The Union.

PS06_Maria Kathia CardenasMs. Maria Kathia Cárdenas

Maria Kathia Cárdenas, BA, MSc(c), is a Peruvian investigator at CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH). Maria Kathia graduated from Economics and studied a Master in Epidemiological Research at UPCH through a Fellowship supported by The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) . Prior to her move to CRONICAS, she worked in areas devoted to Economic Evaluation of Projects and Public Policy in Social Development at two larger economic and development Think Tanks in Peru: Centro de Investigación de la Universidad del Pacífico and Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. Her area of interest is Health economics applied to chronic diseases.

She is the co-investigator in a research that received a seed grant award from NHLBI on lifestyles and cost of hypertension and she managed a health-system study looking into overcoming barriers to access care and treatment for chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru funded by the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, World Health Organization. Currently, she is in charge of the economic evaluation of a large study launching a salt substitute to reduce blood pressure at the population level supported by the NHLBI under The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases.

PS19_Julie_TorodeDr. Julie Torode

Based in Geneva, Julie Torode is Deputy CEO and Advocacy & Programmes.

Director of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In addition to managing some of the UICC flagship publications such as the TNM classification series and the International Journal of Cancer, Dr Torode has been instrumental in developing and instigating the UICC road map spanning global advocacy and 5 lead programmes. Influencing policy at the highest level includes leading UICCs campaign ahead of the High Level Meeting on NCDs in 2011, as well as UICCs work as founding federation of the NCD Alliance and the women’s task force on NCDs and health with partner organizations from the NCD, HIV-AIDs and reproductive health space. Recent work includes establishing programme leads on the Global Access to Pain Relief Initiative and Cervical Cancer Initiative as well as a review of the UICC fellowships and training offer. Dr Torode leads UICCs strategic relationships with key partners IARC (Global Initiative on Cancer registry Development), IAEA (PACT partnership) and WHO (joint work plan as NGO in official relations) as well as UICC members active in international cancer control.

Prior to joining UICC, she spent the last 10 years in Germany working in the pharmaceutical industry including phase I-IV clinical research - with a particular focus on breast and ovarian cancers, professional relations management and working with patient groups in oncology. She has a special interest in cancer prevention and palliative care. Dr Torode holds a PhD in Organic chemistry from the University of Liverpool.

PS19_Mario_Ottiglio_squareMr. Mario Ottiglio

Mario Ottiglio is Director at the IFPMA where he has been working since 2007 in positions of increasing responsibility. Mario leads on global health policy, coordinates IFPMA Members’ policy positions and conveys them to government and UN Specialized Agencies officials.

Mario also heads IFPMA’s public affairs and communications efforts, developing partnerships and promoting active dialogue with key stakeholders from governments, multilateral organizations, and civil society.

Prior to joining the IFPMA, Mario worked as a consultant for both the private sector and governments. Mario holds an MA in Political Science from the Naples Eastern University and is an Italian national.

PS19_Margaret_Ewen_squareMs. Margaret Ewen

Margaret is a pharmacist working on medicine price, availability and affordability issues at Health Action International (HAI) in Amsterdam.

In partnership with the World Health Organization, a methodology manual for measuring medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components was first published in 2003 (with a second edition published in 2008). To date, Marg has led or assisted more than 100 medicine price and availability surveys in all regions of the world, and provided pricing policy advice to numerous national governments.

She is currently looking at prices and affordability of NCD medicines in some Middle Eastern countries, and developing a methodology to compare prices of locally produced and imported medicines. Prior to joining HAI, Marg was a senior advisor at the Medicines Regulatory Authority (Medsafe) in her home country of New Zealand.

Dr. Greg Martin

Dr. Greg Martin is a South African doctor with a masters in public health and an MBA degree. Dr Martin’s involvement in global health has spanned a wide rang of subject matter including maternal and child health, cancer prevention, access to medicine and the treatment and care of people living with HIV, amongst others. He recently stepped down from the role of Director of Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission at the Clinton Health Access Initiative in order to move to Ireland where he recently got married. He is currently with Editor-in-Chief of the journal Globalization and Health and runs a Global Health YouTube channel as well as working as a clinician in a local hospital in Dublin.

Social inequalities in overall and cause specific mortality in Seychelles.

Author(s) Silvia Stringhini1, Valentin Rousson2, Bharathi Viswanathan3, Jude Gedeon 4, Fred Paccaud 5, Pascal Bovet6.
Affiliation(s) 1IUMSP, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2IUMSP, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health, Victoria, Seychelles, 4Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health, Victoria, Seychelles, 5IUMSP, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland, 6IUMSP, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Country - ies of focus Seychelles
Relevant to the conference tracks Social Determinants and Human Rights
Summary Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk of overall and cause specific mortality in a country of the African Region.
Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with higher mortality in high income countries. Only few studies have assessed this association in low and middle income countries, mainly because of sparse reliable mortality data.
Objectives This study explores SES differences in overall and cause-specific mortality in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state.
Methodology All deaths have been medically certified for more than two decades. SES and other health risk factors were assessed in a total of 3246 participants from three independent population-based surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Vital status was ascertained using linkage with vital statistics. Occupational position was assessed using the same questions in the three surveys.
Results During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years (range 0-23 years), 523 participants died (overall mortality rate 10.8 per 1000 person-years). The main causes of death were cardiovascular disease (CVD) (219 deaths) and cancer (142 deaths). Participants in the low SES group had a larger mortality risk overall (HR=1.80; 95% CI: 1.24-2.62), CVD (HR=1.95; 1.04-3.65) and larger non-cancer/non-CVD (HR=2.14; 1.10-4.16) mortality compared to participants in the high SES group. Cancer mortality also tended to be patterned by SES (HR=1.44; 0.76-2.75). Major lifestyle-related risk factors (smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) explained 25%, 11% and 19% of the associations between low SES and all-cause, CVD, and non-cancer/non-CVD mortality, respectively.
Conclusion In this population-based study assessing social inequalities in mortality in the African region, low SES was strongly associated with overall, CVD and non-cancer/non-CVD mortality. Our findings support the view that the burden of non-communicable diseases may disproportionally affect the poor in low and middle income countries.

Cataloguing New York City Legislation Relevant to Chronic Disease Prevention, 2002-2013.

Author(s) Brennan Rhodes-Bratton1, Gina Lovasi2, Ryan Demmer3
Affiliation(s) 1Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health , New York , United States, 2Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health , New York, United States, 3Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health , New York, United States.
Country - ies of focus United States
Relevant to the conference tracks Governance and Policies
Summary The overall aim of this project is to systematically detail the timing and substance of health-relevant New York City (NYC) policies and initiatives from 2002-2013. This is the initial phase of research proposing to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality rates. Local governments around the United States have taken policy action to mitigate the adverse effects of health determinants beyond the health care sector, such as tobacco smoke, physical inactivity, low dietary quality, and air pollution. NYC has been at the vanguard of municipal efforts to decrease the chronic disease using a multi-sectorial approach.
Background Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and disability among developing and developed nations (Yach et al, 2004; Beaglehole & Bonita, 2008). Among the most deadly chronic diseases, are atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, accounting for >65% of global mortality in 2002. This is projected to remain stable through the year 2020 at which point CVD and cancer together will account for nearly 40 million global deaths – nearly twice the number of deaths projected due to injuries and infectious disease combined (Yach et al, 2004). Respiratory diseases including emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are projected to become the third most common cause of death by 2020, accounting for another 10% of global mortality. It is well established that leading modifiable risk factors for chronic disease development include tobacco use, excess adiposity, low dietary quality, and exposure to particulate air pollution. The increasing concentration of populations in urban centres, while previously discussed as potentially contributing to risk (Vlahov, 2002), also represents an opportunity to enhance the public’s health through the enactment of local health promotion efforts in densely populated cities such as New York City.
Objectives Over the past twelve years, NYC has been led by the Michael Bloomberg administration, which has prioritized public health initiatives in response to the chronic disease burden of New Yorkers. Bloomberg worked closely with Health Commissioners, but the efforts were not limited to Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. A variety of governmental approaches including taxation, regulation, marketing/advertising campaigns, and infrastructure investments were proposed and implemented throughout the five boroughs. If the Bloomberg administration significantly decreased the chronic disease burden of the city dwellers, such policies can guide the nation to similar results. Currently, a comprehensive catalogue of all health-related NYC policy proposals, enacted laws and implemented initiatives does not exist.The aim of this research project was to systematically catalogue the nature and deployment of policies and initiatives relevant to public health. We will specifically focus on policies and programs enacted in NYC during the Bloomberg Administration, 2002-2013, related to the following four chronic disease risk factors: 1) tobacco, 2) obesity, 3) diet quality, and 4) air quality.
Methodology This study identifies policies and initiatives relevant to public health proposed and enacted in NYC. Specifically, it addresses the following research questions: (1) How many policies and initiatives related to public health were proposed and enacted in NYC legislation during 2002-2013 (2) Which local governmental agencies and departments were involved in the enact of such efforts.The systematic development of the catalogue of relevant policies and initiatives was generated in three phases. First, online state and city legislative record portals (assembly.state.ny.us, nyc.gov, legistar.council.nyc.gov/Legislation.aspx) and the PubMed database have been used with search terms for each of the selected chronic disease risk factors. Secondly, the searches were narrowed by selecting specific terms for each of the four chronic disease risk factors. For example, when searching legislation in regards to air pollution, the following terms, (air quality, air pollution, and greenhouse gases) were systematically used to provide consistency and a thorough assessment of relevant policies. Lastly, the search was restricted to include only the years of 2002-2013, the Bloomberg Administration’s term in office. The final catalogue includes the policy legislation number, date created, date enacted (if applicable), data enforced (if applicable), current status (as of August 2013), the primary agency that sponsored the bill, and a brief description. Note only citywide policies and regulations were included in the final catalogue.
Results Overall during 2002-2013 there were a total of 113 policies relevant to public health that were introduced and 33 enacted. Legislation that reduced the risk factor of tobacco included 33 introduced and 7 enacted policies. The New York City Council’s committee of health sponsored the majority of this legislation. The most notable legislated passed includes: Smoke Free Act of 2002, Cigarette Tax Increase, Smoking Ban at Abatement Sites, Smoking Ban at Construction Sites, Smoking Ban at Hospitals, Tobacco Product Regulation, and Smoke Free Act of 2002 (Amendment). Legislation that reduced the risk factor of air quality included 32 introduced and 12 enacted policies. The New York City Council’s committee of environmental protection sponsored the majority of this legislation. The most notable legislation passed includes: Use of clean heating oil in New York City, Requiring retrofitting and the use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel for school buses that transport fewer than 10 students at one time, and City's purchase of cleaner vehicles. Legislation that reduced the risk factor of physical activity included 13 introduced and 2 enacted policies. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene sponsored the majority of this legislation. The most notable initiatives include the increase of bike lanes throughout the city as well as the Citi Bike public bike sharing system. Legislation that reduced the risk factor of diet quality included 35 introduced and 12 enacted policies. The New York City Council’s committee of health sponsored the majority of this legislation. The most notable legislated proposed was the Sugary Drink Size Ban and Minimally nutritious food ban in schools. The most notable legislation passed includes Maximizing the enrolment of eligible New Yorkers in the food stamp program and the Trans fats ban.The process of developing the catalogue of public health related polices and initiatives is limited by the information that was available on the online city and state portal as of August 2013. In addition, some citywide initiatives were programs that did not require legislation thus those projects and programs are not included in the presented catalogue. Moreover, at this time the health outcome data has not been analysed thus it is not possible to quantify the impact of such polices on the health of New Yorkers which is our overall goal.
Conclusion This initial effort has highlighted that changing temporal trends in chronic disease outcomes may be attributed to one or many of the concurrent efforts, and evaluations of any one approach should be at once cautious and clever. The catalogue presented is the preliminary phase of an on-going research project to identify the magnitude and effect municipal policies impact health outcomes. Our future research includes strategies to place the temporal patterns of legislation relevant to each risk factor (Figure 2) in the broader context of other local or citywide efforts. Through this work, it will be possible to describe the cumulative “dose-response” relationship of municipal policy initiatives with population health outcomes. Strategies are also proposed using outcome specificity, differential latency periods, and multiple control comparisons that may help us to distil some evidence on the relative effectiveness of particular policies or risk factor targets. Further, we hope through an examination of scientific citation networks to shed light on the evidence base supporting such efforts. This consensus building analysis aims to provide a clearer picture of the stages at which scientific knowledge may inform decision-making, and the opportunities for municipal policies to serve as natural experiments to foster the generation of new scientific knowledge. Upon the completion of this research information about how local policies are developed, implemented can be applied to the future development of disease prevention polices.